A. Metadata Standards

--Metadata vocabularies, schemas, application profiles, and registries

[Note: links are validated and updated frequently. Red star** = newly updated or added. Updated 2017-08-18]

*Astronomy Visualization Metadata (AVM) Standard

Astronomy Visualization Metadata (AVM) Standard for the Virtual Astronomy Multimedia Project (VAMP) and other Virtual Observatories.
AVM spans both photographic images produced from science data and artwork illustrations. This standard allows individual image files to be catalogued and offered through searchable databases.

*Access to Biological Collection Data (ABCD)

Developed and maintained by the Biodiversity Information Standards (TDWG).
A standard for the access to and exchange of data about specimens and observations (a.k.a. primary biodiversity data).

ADN (ADEPT/DLESE/NASA) Metadata Framework

"ADN" stands for Alexandria Digital Earth Prototype (ADEPT), the Digital Library for Earth System Education (DLESE), and  NASA's Joined Digital Library.
Developed by incorporating metadata elements to describe educational resources used by the Earth system education community.

Adobe Extensible Metadata Platform (XMP)

Adobe Systems
A labeling technology that allows to embed metadata into the file itself. It is based on open standards and implemented as a common metadata interchange platform across Adobe products.

Australian Government Locator Service (AGLS) Metadata Standard

**AGLS is published as Australian Standard AS 5044-2010.  The 2010 revision supersedes AS 5044-2002 AGLS Metadata Element Set. Version 1.0 of this manual was prepared by the National Archives of Australia during 2010

**specification in PDF
A set of nineteen descriptive elements. It has been mandated for use by Commonwealth Government agencies.

**Australasian Virtual Engineering Library (AVEL) Metadata Set

**was at: http://avel.library.uq.edu.au/technical.html
A gateway of quality web resources developed collaboratively by a national team through an Australian Research Council (ARC) Research Infrastructure Grant from 1998-2002.  A set consisting of nineteen elements based on Dublin Core.

*BBC ontologies (list) (e.g., Sports, Animals, )


The ontologies the BBC are used to support its audience facing applications such as BBC Sport, BBC Education, BBC Music, News projects and more. (more than 15 ontologies)

*Biological Data Profile of the Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata

*Webpage (ended January 15, 2012): http://www.nbii.gov/portal/server.pt/community/fgdc_metadata/255/standards

-- Encourage to transit to the ISO 19100 series of geospatial metadata standards ( http://www.fgdc.gov/metadata/geospatial-metadata-standards#fgdcendorsedisostandards).


Provides a user-defined or theme-specific profile of the FGDC Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata to increase its utility for documenting biological resources data and information. This standard serves as the metadata content standard for the National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII).


CanCore Learning Resource Metadata Initiative
The CanCore Guidelines for the Access For All Digital Resource Description is synchronized with the IEEE LOM standard, and includes best practice recommendations for all LOM elements.  
*Overview of elements reported in a paper: http://cjlt.csj.ualberta.ca/index.php/cjlt/article/view/109/102

Categories for the Description of Works of Art (CDWA)

A product of the Art Information Task Force (AITF) funded by the J. Paul Getty Trust; Murtha Baca and Patricia Harpring, eds, Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Trust and the College Art Association, 2000. Revised 25 March 2014
For describing works of art, architecture, groups of objects, and visual and textual surrogates, CDWA includes 381 categories and subcategories.


J. Paul Getty Trust and ARTstor.
A subset of elements taken based on the Categories for the Description of Works of Art (CDWA) and Cataloging Cultural Objects: A Guide to Describing Cultural Works and Their Images (CCO). It is an XML schema to describe core records for works of art and material culture.

Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata (CSDGM)

The Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC)
A set of terminology and definitions for the documentation of digital geospatial data.


California Digital Library (CDL) Rights Management Group 
An XML schema for rights metadata.  It is a part of the CDL Rights Management Framework which provides information and tools that guide project managers and participants in making and recording decisions about rights.

Core Metadata Elements: An International Metadata Standard for Geographic Information (ISO 19115)

Defines the schema required for describing geographic information and services.
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CORES Registry

Maintained by UKOLN (UK Office for Library Networking)

The CORES project provides a forum to encourage sharing of metadata semantics. The CORES Registry hosts core vocabularies and profiles enabling projects and services to declare their usage of standards in schemas based on a common model.

Darwin Core

Developed by the University of Kansas Natural History Museum and Biodiversity Research Center as part of its Species Analyst research project.
A standard for describing objects contained within natural history specimen collections and species observation databases.

* Data Documentation Initiative (DDI) Lifecycle

Specifications http://www.ddialliance.org/Specification/

Controlled vocabularies http://www.ddialliance.org/controlled-vocabularies

DDI-Lifecycle is designed to document and manage data across the entire life cycle, from conceptualization to data publication and analysis and beyond. It encompasses all of the DDI-Codebook specification and extends it.

DDI-Codebook is a more light-weight version of the standard, intended primarily to document simple survey data.

* DBpedia Ontology

Classes: http://mappings.dbpedia.org/server/ontology/classes/

The DBpedia Ontology is a shallow, cross-domain ontology, which has been manually created based on the most commonly used infoboxes within Wikipedia. The ontology currently covers 685 classes which form a subsumption hierarchy and are described by 2,795 different properties.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)® Kernel Declaration

International DOI Foundation (IDF) http://www.doi.org
DOI® Kernel Metadata Declaration specification and XML Schema http://www.doi.org/handbook_2000/appendix_6.pdf

The DOI Kernel Declaration provides a basic set of interoperable, descriptive metadata exists so that DOI names can be discovered and disambiguated across multiple services and Application Profiles in a coherent way.

DC Images Application Profile

JISC Digital Repositories programme. http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/repositories/digirep/index/Images_Application_ProfileA DC application profile for describing images held in institutional repositories.

DCMI Government Application Profile (DC-Gov)

DCMI-Government Working Group. Working Draft.
* http://dublincore.org/documents/gov-application-profile/
Clarifies the use of DC in a governmental environment

DCMI Metadata Terms

Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI)
An authoritative specification of all metadata terms maintained by DCMI -- elements, element refinements, encoding schemes, and vocabulary terms (the DCMI Type Vocabulary).

Dublin Core Collections Application Profile

Dublin Core Collection Description Task Group.
Specifies how to construct a DC metadata description set that provides a collection level description, including a broad range of collections as well catalogues and indexes.

Dublin Core -- Education Application Profile (DC-ED)

DCMI-Education Working Group. Working Draft.


Clarifies the use of the Dublin Core Metadata Element Set in education and training-related applications and projects.

Dublin Core -- Library Application Profile (DC-Lib)

DCMI-Libraries Application Profile drafting committee. Working Draft.
Clarifies the use of the Dublin Core Metadata Element Set in libraries and library-related applications and projects. 

Dublin Core Metadata Element Set (DCMES or DC)

Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI)
A standard for cross-domain information resource description. It is a U.S. national (NISO Z39.85) and international standard (ISO 15836).

Dublin Core Metadata Registry

Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI)
Provides users, and applications, with an authoritative source of information about the Dublin Core element set and related vocabularies.

Dublin Core Qualifiers


Issued 2000-07-11 as a DCMI Recommendation.  
Defines two broad categories of qualifiers: element refinement and encoding scheme. 
Note: The qualifiers are superseded; the user should see the DCMI Metadata Terms

Dublin Core Scholarly Works Application Profile (SWAP)

SWAP Working Group, JISC Digital Repositories programme. Coordinated by Julie Allinson and Andy Powell. http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/repositories/digirep/index/

A DC application profile for describing an eprint, or scholarly work.

* Ecological Metadata Language (EML)

The Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity (KNB)

A metadata standard developed by the ecology discipline and for the ecology discipline and implemented as a series of XML document types that can by used in a modular and extensible manner to document ecological data. Each EML module is designed to describe one logical part of the total metadata that should be included with any ecological dataset.

*Education Network Australia (EdNA) Metadata Standard

EdNA Metadata Standard Working Group

Based on Dublin Core Metadata Element Set and is consistent with the Australian Government Locator Service (AGLS).
Reported in a paper: http://academia.edu/2081859/EdNA_Higher_Education_and_Metadata_Implementation

Electronic Theses and Dissertations Metadata Standard (ETD-MS)

Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (NDLTD)
A standard set of metadata elements used to describe electronic theses or dissertations.

*Encoded Archival Context - Corporate bodies, Persons, and Families (EAC-CPF)

Became an adopted standard of the Society of American Archivists (SAA).


Addresses the description of individuals, families and corporate bodies that create, preserve, use and are responsible for and/or associated with records in a variety of ways.

Encoded Archival Description (EAD)

Maintained in the Network Development and MARC Standards Office of the Library of Congress (LC) in partnership with the Society of American Archivists
A standard for encoding archival finding aids using Extensible Markup Language (XML).


*Home | **EPUB3.0.1 | **Specification

The European Library (TEL) Metadata Registry

TEL (The European Library) Metadata Working Group
(Not accessible since Dec. 2005)
Contains all terms and their characteristics that are used to generate TEL application profiles for object descriptions, collection descriptions and name authorities

The European Library (TEL) Application Profile for objects

TEL (The European Library) Metadata Working Group
* http://www.europeanlibrary.org/tel_application_profile_v.htm
(Not accessible since Dec. 2005)
A subset of terms generated from the TEL Metadata Registry.

* Europeana Data Model (EDM)

* * *Home || EDM Factsheet [pdf]

* *EDM definitions: the formal specification of the classes and properties that could be used in Europeana. [pdf]

EDM Primer is the 'story' of EDM and explains how the classes and properties may be used together to model data and support Europeana functionality.

* * *The EDM Mapping Guidelines [pdf]

The Friend of a Friend (FOAF)

FOAF Vocabulary Specification 0.9:
The FOAF vocabulary provides a collection of basic terms that can be used in Web homepages for people, groups, companies, etc.

Gateway to Educational Materials (GEM) Element Set

GEM Element Set v2.0 schema:

* *http://thegateway.org/ [ended]
A set of metadata standards for GEM Consortium to organize and improve access to educational materials found on various federal, state, university, non-profit, and commercial Internet sites.

*Geographic Information Framework Data Standard

Endorsed by the FGDC (Federal Geographic Data Committee) in May 2008

The standard includes a base document and parts that correspond to following data themes: cadastre, imagery, elevation, geodetic control, government units and administrative and statistical boundaries, water - inland, and transportation. The transportation part consists of a base sub-part and sub-parts that correspond to different modes of transportation: airport facilities; rail; roads; transit; and waterways.

*GeoNames Ontology


An ontology used by GeoNames, it makes it possible to add geospatial semantic information to the Word Wide Web. All over 8.3 million geonames toponyms now have a unique URL with a corresponding RDF web service. Other services describe the relation between toponyms.

GeoNames is using 303 (See Other) redirection to distinguish the Concept (thing as is) from the Document about it.


An audio tagging format and a metadata container most often used in conjunction with the MP3 audio file format and is in active use in the media industry for software and hardware.

*The <indecs> metadata framework

indecs, an acronym of "Interoperability of Data in E-commerce Systems" (indecs)
**http://cordis.europa.eu/econtent/mmrcs/indecs.htm [archived 2009]


The <indecs> metadata framework: Principles, model and data dictionary

Created to address the need, in the digital environment, to put different creation identifiers and their supporting metadata into a framework, especially to support the management of intellectual property rights.

Instructional Management Systems (IMS): IMS Learning Resource Meta-data Specification

IMS Global Learning Consortium
A standard to promote the adoption of open technical specifications for interoperable learning technology. The IMS Learning Resource Meta-data Information Model 1.2.1 Final Specification is superseded by IEEE Std 1484.12.1 - 2002, IEEE Standard for Learning Object Metadata (LOM).

IPTC Photo Metadata standard

= IPTC Core & Extension
International Press Telecommunications Council (IPTC)
Replaces: IPTC Core and IPTC Extension

* Website: https://iptc.org/standards/photo-metadata/

** IPTC Photo Metadata Standard 2014 Home || Specification

IPTC (International Press Telecommunications Council) is a consortium of the world's major news agencies, news publishers and news industry vendors.

  • A subset of the IPTC "Information Interchange Model - IIM" was adopted as the known "IPTC Headers" for Photoshop by Adobe Systems to describe digital photos since the 1990s.
  • The IPTC Core Schema for XMP aims to transfer metadata values from the IPTC Headers to the Adobe Extensible Metadata Platform (XMP) framework.
  • IPTC Core and IPTC Extension are two metadata schemas developed by the IPTC for professional use with a focus on news and stock photos, employing Adobe's XMP technology.
  • Both standards are published together as IPTC Photo Metadata Standards. Its latest version includes the IPTC Core 1.1 and the IPTC Extension 1.1 specifications.

Learning Object Metadata (LOM)

IEEE Learning Technology Standards Committee (LTSC)
A set of attributes needed to allow learning objects to be managed, located, and evaluated. Learning Objects are defined as any entity, digital or non-digital, which can be used, re-used or referenced during technology supported learning.

1484.12.1-2002/Cor 1-2011 - IEEE Standard for Learning Object Metadata - Corrigendum 1: Corrigenda for 1484.12.1 LOM (Learning Object Metadata)


*LIDO (Lightweight Information Describing Objects).

CIDOC, (ICOM's International Committee for Documentation)


An XML harvesting schema intended for delivering metadata, for use in a variety of online services, from an organization’s online collections database to portals of aggregated resources, as well as exposing, sharing and connecting data on the web. It is not intended to be used as a basis for a collection management system or to support loan and acquisition activities. 

*Linked Open Vocabularies (LOV) [a registry]


A vocabulary in LOV gathers definitions of a set of classes and properties (together simply called terms of the vocabulary), useful to describe specific types of things, or things in a given domain or industry, or things at large but for a specific usage. LOV provides a choice of several hundreds of such vocabularies, based on quality requirements including URI stability and availability on the Web, use of standard formats and publication best practices, quality metadata and documentation, identifiable and trustable publication body, proper versioning policy.

Machine-Readable Cataloging (MARC)

Library of Congress Network Development and MARC Standards Office
Provides the mechanism by which computers exchange, use, and interpret bibliographic information, and its data elements make up the foundation of most library catalogs used today. MARC became USMARC in the 1980s and MARC 21 in the late 1990s.


MARC 21 format for bibliographic data including guidelines for content designation. Library of Congress, Library and Archives in Canada, British Library, and National Library of Canada. 1999. Washington: Library of Congress, Cataloging Distribution Service. 


Library of Congress Network Development and MARC Standards Office
A framework for working with MARC data in a XML environment.

Mathematical Markup Language (MathML)

W3C Recommendation, 2003
An XML application for describing mathematical notation and capturing both its structure and content.

Metadata for Education Group (MEG) Registry

UKOLN (UK Office for Library Networking)
A schema registration within the educational domain.

Metadata Encoding and Transmission Standard (METS)

Developed as an initiative of the Digital Library Federation; maintained in the Network Development and MARC Standards Office of the Library of Congress
A standard for encoding descriptive, administrative, and structural metadata regarding objects within a digital library, expressed using the XML schema language.

Metadata for Images in XML Standard (MIX)

MARC Standards Office of the Library of Congress in partnership with the NISO Technical Metadata for Digital Still Images Standards Committee and other interested experts
An XML schema containing a set of technical data elements required to manage digital image collections.

Metadata Object Description Schema (MODS)

Library of Congress Network Development and MARC Standards Office
Includes a subset of MARC fields and uses language-based tags rather than numeric ones, in some cases regrouping elements from the MARC 21 bibliographic format. MODS is expressed using the XML.


Developed by MPEG (Moving Picture Experts Group)

A standard (ISO/IEC 14496) for multimedia of the fixed and mobile web.


ISO/IEC 15938 Information technology -- Multimedia content description interface Developed by MPEG (Moving Picture Experts Group)Overview

A standard for description and search of audio and visual content.

Multilingual Access to Subjects (MACS)

A product of the Swiss National Library (SNL), the Bibliothèque nationale de France (BnF), The British Library (BL) and Die Deutsche Bibliothek (DDB)

http://www.nb.admin.ch/nb_professionnel/projektarbeit/00729/00733/index.html?lang=en (Description)
A multilingual search system which enables users to simultaneously search the catalogues of the project's partner libraries in the language of their choice (English, French, German). It is based on the equivalence links created among the three indexing languages used in these libraries: SWD (for German), RAMEAU (for French) and LCSH (for English).

*MusicBrainz schema


A schema used for the MusicBrainz Database which contains all of MusicBrainz' music metadata. This data includes information about artists, release groups, releases, recordings, works, and labels, as well as the many relationships between them.

MusicBrainz is a community-maintained open source encyclopedia of music information.

* *Music Ontology


* *Music Ontology archive at GitHub

Provides a vocabulary for publishing and linking a wide range of music-related data on the Web. Music Ontology data can be published by anyone as part of a web site or an API and linked with existing data, therefore creating a music-related web of data. The Music Ontology Specification provides main concepts and properties for describing music (i.e. artists, albums and tracks) on the Semantic Web.

National Library of Medicine (NLM) Metadata Schema

Developed based on the metadata terms maintained by the Dublin Core Metadata Initiative, incorporates some of the best practice recommendations of the DC-Library Application Profile (DC-Lib). It is designed for use with electronic resources published by the NLM and incorporates additional elements and qualifiers identified as requirements by NLM.

NetCDF Climate and Forecast (CF) Metadata Convention

Developed by the NetCDF (network Common Data Form)
* http://cf-pcmdi.llnl.gov/documents/cf-conventions/1.5/cf-conventions.pdf

** http://cfconventions.org/
Designed to provide a definitive description of what the data in each variable represents and of the spatial and temporal properties of the climate and forecast data

Documents webpage || V.1.6.0 || V.1.7

North American Profile of ISO19115:2003 - Geographic information – Metadata

North American Profile (NAP) Metadata Working Group


Object ID Checklist

Developed to help to combat art theft by encouraging use of the standard and by bringing together organizations around the world that can encourage its implementation. It is a small subset of the CDWA categories.

Online Information Exchange (ONIX) 

Developed and maintained by EDItEUR (http://www.editeur.org/) jointly with Book Industry Communication (UK) and the Book Industry Study Group (US), and with user groups in other countries
A standard means by which product data can be transmitted electronically by publishers to data aggregators, wholesalers, booksellers and anyone else involved in the sale of their publications.

Open Archival Information System (OAIS) Reference Model 

ISO Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) Panel 2

*new 2012 document pdf : http://public.ccsds.org/publications/archive/650x0m2.pdf

A technical recommendation for use in developing a broader consensus on what is required for an archive to provide permanent, or indefinite long-term, preservation of digital information. 

Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting

OAI-PMH is a set of six verbs or services that are invoked within HTTP, to be used by  Data Providers (repositories) to expose structured metadata and Service Providers to harvest that metadata. It enables access to Web-accessible material through interoperable repositories for metadata sharing, publishing and archiving.

Open Digital Rights Language (ODRL)

Released as a W3C Note: http://www.w3.org/TR/odrl/
ODRL Version 2.1 Ontology, 2015. http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/ODRL21

Provides flexible and interoperable mechanisms to support transparent and innovative use of digital content in publishing, distribution, and consumption of digital media across all sectors and communities. The ODRL Policy model is broad enough to support traditional rights expressions for commercial transaction, open access expressions for publicly distributed content, and privacy expressions for social media.

*Open Metadata Registry


Provides services to developers and consumers of controlled vocabularies. This registry's notable contents are MARC 21, ISBD (International Standard Bibliographic Description), and RDA. It registers many values defined in these metadata standards, for example, each value associated with the MARC 21 007 field (Physical Description Fixed Field-General Information) is registered there with a unique URI.

Preservation Metadata: Implementation Strategies (PREMIS)

Developed by PREMIS Working Group at OCLC,
Data Dictionary and XML Schemas are maintained at the Library of Congress

*Version 3.0 http://www.loc.gov/standards/premis/v3/index.html

Defines core set of preservation metadata elements, with supporting data dictionary, applicable to a broad range of digital preservation activities.

*PROV-O Ontology.

W3C Recommendation http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-o/

PROV Document Overview
Provides a set of classes, properties, and restrictions that can be used to represent and interchange provenance information generated in different systems and under different contexts. It can also be specialized to create new classes and properties to model provenance information for different applications and domains.

The Public Broadcasting Metadata Dictionary (PBCore)


Created by the public broadcasting community in the USA for use by public broadcasters and related communities. The PBCore is built on the foundation of the Dublin Core.

**Publishing Requirements for Industry Standard Metadata (PRISM)

IDEAlliance PRISM Working Group

** specification https://www.idealliance.org/specifications
** home: https://www.idealliance.org/prism-metadata


An XML metadata vocabulary for syndicating, aggregating, post-processing, and multi-purposing magazine, news, catalog, book, and mainstream journal content. Developed to meet the needs of publishers to receive, track, and deliver multi-part content.

* Schema.org

Bing, Google and Yahoo!
Types and properties: http://schema.org/docs/full.html
Schema.org provides a shared collection of schemas that webmasters can use to mark up their pages in ways that can be understood by the major search engines. It describes a variety of item types, each of which has its own set of properties that can be used to describe the item.

SCHEMAS Registry —Application Profiles

UKOLN (UK Office for Library Networking)
* http://www.schemas-forum.org/registry/
* http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/projects/iemsr/
Contains several metadata element sets as well as a large number of activity reports which describe and comment on various metadata related activities and initiatives. See also CORES http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/metadata/cores/

The Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM)

Advanced Distributed Learning (ADL) Initiative, Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness (OUSD P&R)
Defines a Web-based learning "Content Aggregation Model" and "Run-Time Environment" for learning objects. The SCORM is a collection of specifications adapted from multiple sources to provide a comprehensive suite of e-learning capabilities that enable interoperability, accessibility and reusability of Web-based learning content.

Shoreline Metadata Profile of the Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata. FGDC-STD-001.2-2001.

A profile developed by the Marine and Coastal Spatial Data Subcommittee, Federal Geographic Data Committee. 

Standard Media Exchange Framework (SMEF), BBC

The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC)
A set of definitions for the information required in production, distribution and management of media assets, currently expressed as a data dictionary and set of entity relationship diagrams.

Technical Metadata for Digital Still Images (ANSI/NISO Z39.87-2006) Data Dictionary


A comprehensive list of technical data elements relevant to the management of digital still images, it is designed to facilitate interoperability between systems, services, and software as well as to support the long-term management of and continuing access to digital image collections.

The Text Encoding Initiative (TEI) Guidelines

The Text Encoding Initiative Consortium
An international standard for representing all kinds of literary and linguistic texts for online research and teaching.

*UMBEL Vocabulary

UMBEL (Upper Mapping and Binding Exchange Layer) http://www.umbel.org/

specification: http://techwiki.umbel.org/index.php/UMBEL_Specification

UMBEL Vocabulary provides a general vocabulary of classes and predicates for describing domain ontologies, with the specific aim of promoting interoperability with external datasets and domains. [about the vocabulary]

UMBEL is a general reference structure of 28,000 concepts, which provides a scaffolding to link and interoperate other datasets and domain vocabularies. [|graph view ]

* United States Thoroughfare, Landmark, and Postal Address Data Standard

2011 endorsed by the FGDC; 2015 went through Maintenance Review

Home || Document number FGDC-STD-016-2011|| Schemes

Maintenance authority U.S. Census Bureau

Covers thoroughfare, landmark, and postal addresses within the United States, including its outlying territories and possessions.

vCard - The Electronic Business Card

Internet Mail Consortium
http://www.imc.org/pdi/vcard-21.txt (version 2.1)

*https://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2426.txt (1998)
A specification defines a format for an electronic business card, or vCard.

vCard (in RDF)

Representing vCard Objects in RDF/XML, W3C Note 22 February 2001
This W3C note specifies a Resource Description Framework (RDF) expression that corresponds to the vCard electronic business card profile defined by RFC 2426.

vCard MIME Directory Profile (RFC 2426)

A profile of the MIME Content-Type for directory information for a white-pages person object, based on a vCard electronic business card.

Visual Resources Association (VRA) Core Categories

Visual Resources Association Data Standards Committee
VRA Core 3.0:  http://www.vraweb.org/projects/vracore3/index.html http://vrawebor.ipower.com/projects/vracore3/index.html
VRA Core 4.0: http://www.vraweb.org/projects/vracore4/index.html  http://core.vraweb.org/pdfs/VRACore4SEI2009deVerges.pdf
Specifies a set of core categories for creating records to describe works of visual culture as well as the images that document them.

Z39.50 Profile for Access to Digital Collection

An ANSI/NISO Z39.50 standard and the International Standard, ISO 23950: "Information Retrieval (Z39.50): Application Service Definition and Protocol Specification"
The protocol addresses communication between corresponding information retrieval applications, the client and server (which may reside on different computers).