A. Metadata Standards

--Metadata schemas, application profiles, and registries

[Note: links are validated and updated frequently. Red star* = newly updated or added.]

*Astronomy Visualization Metadata (AVM) Standard

Astronomy Visualization Metadata (AVM) Standard for the Virtual Astronomy Multimedia Project (VAMP) and other Virtual Observatories.
http://virtualastronomy.org/avm_1.1_final_draft.pdf
AVM spans both photographic images produced from science data and artwork illustrations. This standard allows individual image files to be catalogued and offered through searchable databases.

*Access to Biological Collection Data (ABCD)

Developed and maintained by the Biodiversity Information Standards (TDWG).
http://www.tdwg.org/standards/115/
A standard for the access to and exchange of data about specimens and observations (a.k.a. primary biodiversity data).

ADN (ADEPT/DLESE/NASA) Metadata Framework

"ADN" stands for Alexandria Digital Earth Prototype (ADEPT), the Digital Library for Earth System Education (DLESE), and  NASA's Joined Digital Library.
http://www.dlese.org/Metadata/adn-item/
Developed by incorporating metadata elements to describe educational resources used by the Earth system education community.

Adobe Extensible Metadata Platform (XMP)

Adobe Systems
http://www.adobe.com/products/xmp/
A labeling technology that allows to embed metadata into the file itself. It is based on open standards and implemented as a common metadata interchange platform across Adobe products.

Australian Government Locator Service (AGLS) Metadata Standard

Maintained by the National Archives of Australia and published as Australian Standard AS 5044 by Standards Australia in December 2002
http://www.naa.gov.au/records-management/publications/AGLS-Element.aspx
A set of nineteen descriptive elements. It has been mandated for use by Commonwealth Government agencies.

Australian Virtual Engineering Library (AVEL) Metadata Set

http://avel.library.uq.edu.au/technical.html
A gateway of quality web resources developed collaboratively by a national team through an Australian Research Council (ARC) Research Infrastructure Grant from 1998-2002.  A set consisting of nineteen elements based on Dublin Core.

*Biological Data Profile of the Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata

FGDC-STD-001.1-1999 
http://www.fgdc.gov/standards/projects/FGDC-standards-projects/metadata/biometadata/biodatap.pdf
*Webpage (ended January 15, 2012): http://www.nbii.gov/portal/server.pt/community/fgdc_metadata/255/standards
Provides a user-defined or theme-specific profile of the FGDC Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata to increase its utility for documenting biological resources data and information. This standard serves as the metadata content standard for the National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII).

CanCore

CanCore Learning Resource Metadata Initiative
*
http://cancore.athabascau.ca/en/guidelines.html

The CanCore Guidelines for the Access For All Digital Resource Description is synchronized with the IEEE LOM standard, and includes best practice recommendations for all LOM elements.  
*Overview of elements reported in a paper: http://cjlt.csj.ualberta.ca/index.php/cjlt/article/view/109/102

Categories for the Description of Works of Art (CDWA)

A product of the Art Information Task Force (AITF) funded by the J. Paul Getty Trust; Murtha Baca and Patricia Harpring, eds, Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Trust and the College Art Association, 2000. 
*http://www.getty.edu/research/publications/electronic_publications/cdwa/index.html
For describing works of art, architecture, groups of objects, and visual and textual surrogates, CDWA includes 381 categories and subcategories.

CDWA Lite

*http://www.getty.edu/research/publications/electronic_publications/cdwa/cdwalite.html
J. Paul Getty Trust and ARTstor.
A subset of elements taken based on the Categories for the Description of Works of Art (CDWA) and Cataloging Cultural Objects: A Guide to Describing Cultural Works and Their Images (CCO). It is an XML schema to describe core records for works of art and material culture.

Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata (CSDGM)

The Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC)
http://www.fgdc.gov/standards/projects/FGDC-standards-projects/metadata/base-metadata/v2_0698.pdf
A set of terminology and definitions for the documentation of digital geospatial data.

copyrightMD

California Digital Library (CDL) Rights Management Group 
*http://www.cdlib.org/groups/rmg/
An XML schema for rights metadata.  It is a part of the CDL Rights Management Framework which provides information and tools that guide project managers and participants in making and recording decisions about rights.

Core Metadata Elements: An International Metadata Standard for Geographic Information (ISO 19115)

http://www.iso.org/iso/en/CatalogueDetailPage.Catalogue
Detail?CSNUMBER=26020&ICS1=35&ICS2=240&ICS3=70

Defines the schema required for describing geographic information and services.
{note: $}

CORES Registry

Maintained by UKOLN (UK Office for Library Networking)
http://www.cores-eu.net/registry/
The CORES project provides a forum to encourage sharing of metadata semantics. The CORES Registry hosts core vocabularies and profiles enabling projects and services to declare their usage of standards in schemas based on a common model.

Darwin Core

Developed by the University of Kansas Natural History Museum and Biodiversity Research Center as part of its Species Analyst research project.
http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/
A standard for describing objects contained within natural history specimen collections and species observation databases.

Data Dictionary -- Technical Metadata for Digital Still Images (ANSI/NISO Z39.87-2006) 

http://www.niso.org/kst/reports/standards?step=2&gid=
None&project_key=b897b0cf3e2ee526252d9f830207
b3cc9f3b6c2c

A comprehensive list of technical data elements relevant to the management of digital still images, it is designed to facilitate interoperability between systems, services, and software as well as to support the long-term management of and continuing access to digital image collections.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)® Kernel Declaration

International DOI Foundation (IDF) http://www.doi.org
DOI® Kernel Metadata Declaration specification and XML Schema http://www.doi.org/handbook_2000/appendix_6.pdf
The DOI Kernel Declaration provides a basic set of interoperable, descriptive metadata exists so that DOI names can be discovered and disambiguated across multiple services and Application Profiles in a coherent way.

DCMI Metadata Terms

Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI)
http://dublincore.org/documents/dcmi-terms/

An authoritative specification of all metadata terms maintained by DCMI -- elements, element refinements, encoding schemes, and vocabulary terms (the DCMI Type Vocabulary).

Dublin Core Metadata Element Set (DCMES or DC)

Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI)
http://dublincore.org/documents/dces/

A standard for cross-domain information resource description. It is a U.S. national (NISO Z39.85) and international standard (ISO 15836).

Dublin Core Metadata Registry

Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI)
http://dcmi.kc.tsukuba.ac.jp/dcregistry/
Provides users, and applications, with an authoritative source of information about the Dublin Core element set and related vocabularies.

Dublin Core Scholarly Works Application Profile (SWAP)

SWAP Working Group, JISC Digital Repositories programme. Coordinated by Julie Allinson and Andy Powell. http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/repositories/digirep/index/
Scholarly_Works_Application_Profile
A DC application profile for describing an eprint, or scholarly work.

Dublin Core Collections Application Profile

Dublin Core Collection Description Task Group.
http://dublincore.org/groups/collections/collection-application-profile/2007-03-09/
Specifies how to construct a DC metadata description set that provides a collection level description, including a broad range of collections as well catalogues and indexes.

Images Application Profile

JISC Digital Repositories programme. http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/repositories/digirep/index/Images_Application_ProfileA DC application profile for describing images held in institutional repositories.

Dublin Core -- Education Application Profile (DC-ED)

DCMI-Education Working Group. Working Draft.
http://dublincore.org/educationwiki/DC_2dEducation_20Application_20Profile
and http://dublincore.org/educationwiki/Model
An ongoing project for Clarifying the use of the Dublin Core Metadata Element Set in education and training-related applications and projects.

DCMI Government Application Profile (DC-Gov)

DCMI-Government Working Group. Working Draft.
* http://dublincore.org/documents/gov-application-profile/
Clarifies the use of DC in a governmental environment

Dublin Core -- Library Application Profile (DC-Lib)

DCMI-Libraries Application Profile drafting committee. Working Draft.
http://dublincore.org/documents/library-application-profile/ http://www.dublincore.org/documents/2004/09/10/library-application-profile/
Clarifies the use of the Dublin Core Metadata Element Set in libraries and library-related applications and projects. 

Dublin Core Qualifiers

http://dublincore.org/documents/2000/07/11/
dcmes-qualifiers/

Issued 2000-07-11 as a DCMI Recommendation.  
Defines two broad categories of qualifiers: element refinement and encoding scheme. 
Note: The qualifiers are superseded, and the user should see the DCMI Metadata Terms

* Ecological Metadata Language (EML)

The Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity (KNB)
http://knb.ecoinformatics.org/software/eml/
A metadata standard developed by the ecology discipline and for the ecology discipline and implemented as a series of XML document types that can by used in a modular and extensible manner to document ecological data. Each EML module is designed to describe one logical part of the total metadata that should be included with any ecological dataset.

*Education Network Australia (EdNA) Metadata Standard

EdNA Metadata Standard Working Group
http://www.edna.edu.au/metadata

Based on Dublin Core Metadata Element Set and is consistent with the Australian Government Locator Service (AGLS).
Reported in a paper: http://academia.edu/2081859/EdNA_Higher_Education_and_Metadata_Implementation

Electronic Theses and Dissertations Metadata Standard (ETD-MS)

Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (NDLTD)
http://www.ndltd.org/standards/metadata
A standard set of metadata elements used to describe electronic theses or dissertations.

Encoded Archival Description (EAD)

Maintained in the Network Development and MARC Standards Office of the Library of Congress (LC) in partnership with the Society of American Archivists
http://lcweb.loc.gov/ead/

A standard for encoding archival finding aids using Extensible Markup Language (XML).

The European Library (TEL) Metadata Registry

TEL (The European Library) Metadata Working Group
*http://krait.kb.nl/coop/tel/handbook/registry.html

(Not accessible since Dec. 2005)
Contains all terms and their characteristics that are used to generate TEL application profiles for object descriptions, collection descriptions and name authorities

The European Library (TEL) Application Profile for objects

TEL (The European Library) Metadata Working Group
*
http://www.europeanlibrary.org/tel_application_profile_v.htm
(Not accessible since Dec. 2005)
A subset of terms generated from the TEL Metadata Registry.

The Friend of a Friend (FOAF)

FOAF Vocabulary Specification 0.9:
http://xmlns.com/foaf/spec/20070524.html

The FOAF vocabulary provides a collection of basic terms that can be used in Web homepages for people, groups, companies, etc.

Gateway to Educational Materials (GEM) Element Set

GEM Element Set v2.0 schema:
*http://balas.jesandco.org/schema/2002/08/15/gem#
A set of metadata standards for GEM Consortium to organize and improve access to educational materials found on various federal, state, university, non-profit, and commercial Internet sites.

ID3

http://www.id3.org/
An audio tagging format and a metadata container most often used in conjunction with the MP3 audio file format and is in active use in the media industry for software and hardware.

The <indecs> metadata framework

Interoperability of Data in E-commerce Systems (indecs)
http://www.doi.org/topics/indecs/indecs_framework_2000.pdf
Created to address the need, in the digital environment, to put different creation identifiers and their supporting metadata into a framework, especially to support the management of intellectual property rights.

Instructional Management Systems (IMS): IMS Learning Resource Meta-data Specification

IMS Global Learning Consortium
http://www.imsglobal.org/metadata/index.html

A standard to promote the adoption of open technical specifications for interoperable learning technology. The IMS Learning Resource Meta-data Information Model 1.2.1 Final Specification is superseded by IEEE Std 1484.12.1 - 2002, IEEE Standard for Learning Object Metadata (LOM).

IPTC Photo Metadata standard

= IPTC Core & Extension
International Press Telecommunications Council (IPTC)
Replaces: IPTC Core and IPTC Extension
Website: http://iptc.cms.apa.at/cms/site/index.html?channel=CH0099
| pdf
IPTC (International Press Telecommunications Council) is a consortium of the world's major news agencies, news publishers and news industry vendors.

  • A subset of the IPTC "Information Interchange Model - IIM" was adopted as the known "IPTC Headers" for Photoshop by Adobe Systems to describe digital photos since the 1990s.
  • The IPTC Core Schema for XMP aims to transfer metadata values from the IPTC Headers to the Adobe Extensible Metadata Platform (XMP) framework.
  • IPTC Core and IPTC Extension are two metadata schemas developed by the IPTC for professional use with a focus on news and stock photos, employing Adobe's XMP technology.
  • Both standards are published together as IPTC Photo Metadata Standards. Its latest version includes the IPTC Core 1.1 and the IPTC Extension 1.1 specifications.

Learning Object Metadata (LOM)

IEEE Learning Technology Standards Committee (LTSC)
http://ltsc.ieee.org/wg12/index.html

A set of attributes needed to allow learning objects to be managed, located, and evaluated. Learning Objects are defined as any entity, digital or non-digital, which can be used, re-used or referenced during technology supported learning.

Machine-Readable Cataloging (MARC)

Library of Congress Network Development and MARC Standards Office
http://www.loc.gov/marc/
Provides the mechanism by which computers exchange, use, and interpret bibliographic information, and its data elements make up the foundation of most library catalogs used today. MARC became USMARC in the 1980s and MARC 21 in the late 1990s.

MARC 21

MARC 21 format for bibliographic data including guidelines for content designation. Library of Congress, Library and Archives in Canada, British Library, and National Library of Canada. 1999. Washington: Library of Congress, Cataloging Distribution Service. 

MARCXML

Library of Congress Network Development and MARC Standards Office
*http://www.loc.gov/standards/marcxml/
A framework for working with MARC data in a XML environment.

Mathematical Markup Language (MathML)

W3C Recommendation, 2003
http://www.w3.org/TR/MathML2/

An XML application for describing mathematical notation and capturing both its structure and content.

Metadata for Education Group (MEG) Registry

UKOLN (UK Office for Library Networking)
http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/metadata/education/registry/contents.html

A schema registration within the educational domain.

Metadata Encoding and Transmission Standard (METS)

Developed as an initiative of the Digital Library Federation; maintained in the Network Development and MARC Standards Office of the Library of Congress
*http://www.loc.gov/standards/mets/
A standard for encoding descriptive, administrative, and structural metadata regarding objects within a digital library, expressed using the XML schema language.

Metadata for Images in XML Standard (MIX)

MARC Standards Office of the Library of Congress in partnership with the NISO Technical Metadata for Digital Still Images Standards Committee and other interested experts
http://www.loc.gov/standards/mix/

An XML schema containing a set of technical data elements required to manage digital image collections.

Metadata Object Description Schema (MODS)

Library of Congress Network Development and MARC Standards Office
http://www.loc.gov/standards/mods/

Includes a subset of MARC fields and uses language-based tags rather than numeric ones, in some cases regrouping elements from the MARC 21 bibliographic format. MODS is expressed using the XML.

MPEG-4

Developed by MPEG (Moving Picture Experts Group)
Overview
*http://mpeg.chiariglione.org/standards/mpeg-4/mpeg-4.htm
A standard (ISO/IEC 14496) for multimedia of the fixed and mobile web.

MPEG-7

ISO/IEC 15938 Information technology -- Multimedia content description interface Developed by MPEG (Moving Picture Experts Group)Overview
*http://mpeg.chiariglione.org/standards/mpeg-7/mpeg-7.htm
A standard for description and search of audio and visual content.

Multilingual Access to Subjects (MACS)

A product of the Swiss National Library (SNL), the Bibliothèque nationale de France (BnF), The British Library (BL) and Die Deutsche Bibliothek (DDB)
*http://www.d-nb.de/eng/wir/projekte/macs.htm (Description)
A multilingual search system which enables users to simultaneously search the catalogues of the project's partner libraries in the language of their choice (English, French, German). It is based on the equivalence links created among the three indexing languages used in these libraries: SWD (for German), RAMEAU (for French) and LCSH (for English).

National Library of Medicine (NLM) Metadata Schema

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/tsd/cataloging/metafilenew.html
Developed based on the metadata terms maintained by the Dublin Core Metadata Initiative, incorporates some of the best practice recommendations of the DC-Library Application Profile (DC-Lib). It is designed for use with electronic resources published by the NLM and incorporates additional elements and qualifiers identified as requirements by NLM.

NetCDF Climate and Forecast (CF) Metadata Convention

Developed by the NetCDF (network Common Data Form)
* http://cf-pcmdi.llnl.gov/documents/cf-conventions/1.5/cf-conventions.pdf

Designed to provide a definitive description of what the data in each variable represents and of the spatial and temporal properties of the climate and forecast data

North American Profile of ISO19115:2003 - Geographic information – Metadata

North American Profile (NAP) Metadata Working Group
http://www.fgdc.gov/standards/projects/incits-l1-standards
-projects/NAP-Metadata/napMetadataProfileV11_7-26-07.pdf

Object ID Checklist

*http://archives.icom.museum/object-id/checklist.html
Developed to help to combat art theft by encouraging use of the standard and by bringing together organizations around the world that can encourage its implementation. It is a small subset of the CDWA categories.

Online Information Exchange (ONIX) 

Developed and maintained by EDItEUR (http://www.editeur.org/) jointly with Book Industry Communication (UK) and the Book Industry Study Group (US), and with user groups in other countries
*http://www.editeur.org/8/ONIX/
A standard means by which product data can be transmitted electronically by publishers to data aggregators, wholesalers, booksellers and anyone else involved in the sale of their publications.

Open Archival Information System (OAIS) Reference Model 

ISO Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) Panel 2
http://public.ccsds.org/publications/archive/650x0b1.pdf
A technical recommendation for use in developing a broader consensus on what is required for an archive to provide permanent, or indefinite long-term, preservation of digital information. 

Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting

http://www.openarchives.org/pmh/
OAI-PMH is a set of six verbs or services that are invoked within HTTP, to be used by  Data Providers (repositories) to expose structured metadata and Service Providers to harvest that metadata. It enables access to Web-accessible material through interoperable repositories for metadata sharing, publishing and archiving.

Open Digital Rights Language (ODRL)

Released as a W3C Note: http://www.w3.org/TR/odrl/
Available as an open source software. Intended to provide flexible and interoperable mechanisms to support transparent and innovative use of digital content in publishing, distributing, and consuming of digital media across all sectors and communities.

Preservation Metadata: Implementation Strategies (PREMIS)

Developed by PREMIS Working Group at OCLC,
*http://www.oclc.org/research/activities/past/orprojects/pmwg/premis-final.pdf
Data Dictionary and XML Schemas are maintained at the Library of Congress
http://www.loc.gov/standards/premis/
Defines core set of preservation metadata elements, with supporting data dictionary, applicable to a broad range of digital preservation activities.

The Public Broadcasting Metadata Dictionary (PBCore)

*http://pbcore.org/2.0/
Created by the public broadcasting community in the USA for use by public broadcasters and related communities. The PBCore is built on the foundation of the Dublin Core.

Publishing Requirements for Industry Standard Metadata (PRISM)

IDEAlliance PRISM Working Group
http://www.prismstandard.org/specifications/

An XML metadata vocabulary for syndicating, aggregating, post-processing, and multi-purposing magazine, news, catalog, book, and mainstream journal content. Developed to meet the needs of publishers to receive, track, and deliver multi-part content.

* Schema.org

Bing, Google and Yahoo!
http://schema.org/
Types and properties: http://schema.org/docs/full.html
Schema.org provides a shared collection of schemas that webmasters can use to mark up their pages in ways that can be understood by the major search engines. It describes a variety of item types, each of which has its own set of properties that can be used to describe the item.

SCHEMAS Registry —Application Profiles

UKOLN (UK Office for Library Networking)
* http://www.schemas-forum.org/registry/

* http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/projects/iemsr/
Contains several metadata element sets as well as a large number of activity reports which describe and comment on various metadata related activities and initiatives. See also CORES http://www.cores-eu.net/

The Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM)

Advanced Distributed Learning (ADL) Initiative, Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness (OUSD P&R)
http://www.scormsoft.com/scorm

Defines a Web-based learning "Content Aggregation Model" and "Run-Time Environment" for learning objects. The SCORM is a collection of specifications adapted from multiple sources to provide a comprehensive suite of e-learning capabilities that enable interoperability, accessibility and reusability of Web-based learning content.

Shoreline Metadata Profile of the Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata. FGDC-STD-001.2-2001.

*http://www.fgdc.gov/standards/projects/FGDC-standards-projects/metadata/shoreline-metadata
A profile developed by the Marine and Coastal Spatial Data Subcommittee, Federal Geographic Data Committee. 

Standard Media Exchange Framework (SMEF), BBC

The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC)
http://www.bbc.co.uk/guidelines/smef/

A set of definitions for the information required in production, distribution and management of media assets, currently expressed as a data dictionary and set of entity relationship diagrams.

The Text Encoding Initiative (TEI) Guidelines

The Text Encoding Initiative Consortium
http://www.tei-c.org/

An international standard for representing all kinds of literary and linguistic texts for online research and teaching.

vCard - The Electronic Business Card

Internet Mail Consortium
http://www.imc.org/pdi/vcard-21.txt (version 2.1)
A specification defines a format for an electronic business card, or vCard.

vCard (in RDF)

Representing vCard Objects in RDF/XML, W3C Note 22 February 2001
http://www.w3.org/TR/vcard-rdf

This W3C note specifies a Resource Description Framework (RDF) expression that corresponds to the vCard electronic business card profile defined by RFC 2426.

vCard MIME Directory Profile (RFC 2426)

*http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2426.txt
A profile of the MIME Content-Type for directory information for a white-pages person object, based on a vCard electronic business card.

Visual Resources Association (VRA) Core Categories

Visual Resources Association Data Standards Committee
VRA Core 3.0:  http://www.vraweb.org/projects/vracore3/index.html
VRA Core 4.0: http://www.vraweb.org/projects/vracore4/index.html
Specifies a set of core categories for creating records to describe works of visual culture as well as the images that document them.

Z39.50 Profile for Access to Digital Collection

An ANSI/NISO Z39.50 standard and the International Standard, ISO 23950: "Information Retrieval (Z39.50): Application Service Definition and Protocol Specification"
http://lcweb.loc.gov/z3950/agency/markup/markup.html

The protocol addresses communication between corresponding information retrieval applications, the client and server (which may reside on different computers).