Chapter 2. Understanding Metadata Vocabularies

Chapter 2 section titles

2.1 Metadata Element Sets
2.1.1 Components and Structures – An Overview
2.1.2 Flat Structure Dublin Core Metadata Element Set VRA Core 3.0
2.1.3 Nested Structure VRA Core 4.0
2.2 Application Profiles
2.2.1 The Concept of Application Profile
2.2.2 Examples of APs Consisting of Elements Drawn from Other Schemas
2.2.3 Sources of Reusable Elements
2.3 Ontologies as Metadata Vocabularies
2.3.1 Background
2.3.2 Modular Structure
2.3.3 Friend of a Friend (FOAF)
2.3.4 Schema.org
2.4. RDF Vocabularies for Metadata Terms
2.4.1 An Introduction to RDF (Resource Description Framework)
2.4.2 DCMI Metadata Terms
2.4.3 Metadata Descriptions: From “Records” to “Statements”

Links to sources

Figure 2-1-1 An entry for DC element date ..... 39

Figure 2-1-2 An entry for VRA Core 4 element title ..... 40

Figure 2-1-3 The 15 Dublin Core elements seen from three categories, composite based on DCMES, Version 1.1..... 44

Figure 2-1-5 VRA Core 4.0 elements and sub-elements, composite based on VRA Core 4.0 Element Outline 2007..... 52

Figure 2-2-2 AVEL metadata element list..... 56
(Was at http://avel.library.uq.edu.au/technical.html; no longer available.)

Figure 2-2-3 Portion of the metadata elements within the NSDL_DC metadata framework, from NSDL_DC Metadata Guidelines Part V.1. ..... 57

Figure 2-3-1 The Semantic Web Layer Cake: Tim Berners-Lee. 2000 . and W3C Latest layer cake diagram..... 60

Figure 2-3-2 A FOAF file for a Person instance ..... 63

Figure 2-3-3 Explanation of the Schema.org Type Hierarchy view and Individual Type view of "Book" type ..... 65

WorldCat's use of Schema.org. Classes | Example: Pride and prejudice http://www.worldcat.org/title/pride-and-prejudice/oclc/246662790 ==> check the end of the page "Linked Data" section | RDF/XML expression

Figure 2-4-5 RDF serialization formats at a glance, generated based on "What's New in RDF 1.1"..... 71

Figure 2-4-6 dcterms:creator ..... 73

Figure 2-4-8 dcterms:accrualPeriodicity's domain and range ..... 76


For each section, read documents provided by the owners of the metadata standards (e.g., DCMES, VRA Core 4.0, Schema.org, and DC Terms) concentrating primarily on the specifications of each element set and its user guide. Exclude XML schemas prepared for machine processing.


Baker, Thomas. 2012. "Libraries, Languages of Description, and Linked Data: A Dublin Core Perspective." Library Hi Tech 30 (1):116−33.

Harper, Corey, 2010. "Dublin Core Metadata Initiative: Beyond the Element Set." Information Standards Quarterly 22 (1):21−28. http://www.niso.org/publications/isq/free/FE_DCMI_Harper_isqv22no1.pdf.

Heery, Rachel, and Manjula Patel. 2000. "Application Profiles: Mixing and Matching Metadata Schemas." Ariadne no. 25. http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue25/app-profiles/.

Manola, Frank, Eric Miller, and Brian McBride. 2014. "RDF 1.1 Primer." W3C Working Group Note 25, February 2014. http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-primer/.