Chapter 8. Achieving Interoperability

Chapter 8 section titles

8.1 Definitions
8.2 Metadata Decisions at Different Stages of a Digital Library Project
8.3 Achieving Interoperability at the Schema Level
8.3.1 Derivation
8.3.2 Application Profiles (APs)
8.3.3 Crosswalks
8.3.4 Frameworks
8.3.5 Metadata Registries
8.4. Achieving Interoperability at the Record Level
8.4.1 Conversion of Metadata Records
8.4.2 Data Reuse and Integration
8.5 Achieving Interoperability at the Metadata Repository Level
8.5.1 Metadata Repositories Based on the Open Archives Initiative (OAI) Protocol
8.5.2 Metadata Repositories Supporting Multiple Formats Without Record Conversion
8.5.3 Aggregation and Enriched Metadata Records in a Repository
8.5.4 Element-based and Value-based Crosswalking Services
8.5.5 Value-Based Mapping for Cross-Database Searching
8.5.6 Value-Based Co-Occurrence Mapping
8.6 Alignment Approaches used for Linked Data
8.6.1 The Need for Alignment of Metadata Vocabularies
8.6.2 Alignment at Class-level
8.6.3 Alignment at Property-level
8.6.4 Mapping Degrees
8.7. Conclusion

Links to sources

For section 8.1-8.5:

Zeng, Marcia Lei and Lois Mai Chan. 2006. Metadata Interoperability and Standardization-- A Study of Methodology. Part II: Achieving Interoperability at Record and Repository Levels. D-Lib Magazine, Vol.12, No.6. Available: http://www.dlib.org/dlib/june06/zeng/06zeng.html

Chan, Lois Mai and Marcia Lei Zeng. 2006. Metadata Interoperability and Standardization -- A Study of Methodology. Part I: Achieving Interoperability at Schema Level. D-Lib Magazine, Vol.12, No.6. http://www.dlib.org/dlib/june06/chan/06chan.html

Figure 8-3-7 IIIF Image URI syntax explained, created based on the example from the http://iiif.io/ homepage..... 358

For section 8.6:

Linked Open Data (LOD) Cloud diagram

LOD Datasets and ontologies/schemas:

GeoNames (home) | about | the Ontology

MusicBrainz (home) | database | schema

DBpedia Ontology (home) | about | Classes

* Music Ontology (home) | specification | its archive at GitHub

Schema.org (home) | schemas (Types and properties)

UMBEL (home) | about the vocabulary | specification | graph view

BBC ontologies (list) (e.g., Sports, Animals, )


This exercise is designed with the intention of having individuals work collaboratively in groups.

Based on the discussion in this chapter, work in a group (if possible) to develop collaborative models to represent various approaches that ensure interoperability. Present your model(s) in graphic form (see for example, the methods used for direct crosswalking and cross-switching models in figures 8-3-4 and 8-3-5). Where graphic models exist, try to represent the same mechanism in a different manner that still accurately conveys the principles involved. Attempt to design as many models as there are approaches discussed in the chapter. Be creative and highly abstract; and, where group-work is possible, discuss and brainstorm about possible new model designs.


Bernstein, Philip. A., Jayant Madhavan, and Erhard Rahm. 2011. "Generic Schema Matching, Ten Years Later." In Proceedings of the 37th International Conference on Very Large Data Bases (VLDB 2011), edited by H. V. Jagadish et al., 695–701. Seattle: VLDB Endowment.

Halpin, Harry, Ivan Herman, and Patrick J. Hayes. 2010. "When owl:sameAs Isn't the Same: An Analysis of Identity Links on the Semantic Web." W3C Workshop— RDF Next Steps, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, USA. June 26−27, 2010. Available at http://www.w3.org/2009/12/rdf-ws/papers/ws21.

Heery, Rachel. 2004. "Metadata Futures: Steps toward Semantic Interoperability." Metadata in Practice, edited by Diane I. Hillmann and Elaine L. Westbrooks, 257–271. Chicago: American Library Association.

St. Pierre, Margaret, and William P. LaPlant, Jr. 1998. Issues in Crosswalking Content Metadata Standards. Bethesda, MD: NISO Press. http://www.niso.org/publications/white_papers/crosswalk/.